Vaccination is the most effective way of preventing infectious diseases. Some viral diseases like smallpox have even been eradicated or are on the verge to be extinct like poliomyelitis. For other infectious diseases like malaria, hepatitis or tumors, vaccination is still not effective enough. Only vaccination against human papilloma virus has been shown to decrease the incidence of tumors. Once a tumor has become evident treatment by vaccination for some entities has demonstrated to have a - hitherto limited - impact. Examples here are melanoma, lymphomas, and some leukemias.
Nanoparticles and nanocapsules offer the opportunity to deliver suitable amounts of vaccine antigen to the pathogen entry side in conjunction with adjuvants, which promote cellular immunity. Thus, it is the aim of the focus group to design and apply novel nanocontainers as drug carriers with low toxicity, cell-targeting, and controlled release properties as promising carriers for an efficient and effective delivery of vaccine antigens and adjuvants to the primary side of different kinds of immune interventions.